  Quiz Over Chapter 11 of the 6th Edition Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA Introduction "ANOVA" is an acronym.  What's the full phrase it represents? What is the "statistical focus" of a one-way analysis of variance? A one-way analysis of variance can be used to compare ___ or more groups. (T/F)  ANOVA is the most frequently used inferential technique for comparing three or more means. The Purpose of a One-Way ANOVA A one-way ANOVA's inference goes from the __ (sample/population) means to the __ (sample/population) means. If a one-way ANOVA involves 4 samples, each drawn from a different population, how many inferences will the researcher be making on the basis of the one-way ANOVA? The Distinction Between a One-Way ANOVA and Other Kinds of ANOVA (T/F)  These three terms are synonymous: "one-way ANOVA,"  "one-factor ANOVA," and "simple ANOVA." In discussing ANOVA studies, what term means the same thing as "independent variable?" Correct this: A one-way ANOVA involves 3 independent variables, 2 dependent variables, and correlated samples. In Excerpt 11.6, what was the dependent variable? If research participants perform a task 3 times (first with no distraction, then with a few distractions, and finally with many distractions), the independent variable would be _____ (between-/within-)subjects in nature. The One-Way ANOVA's Null and Alternative Hypothesis A one-way ANOVA's null hypothesis stipulates that ____ (at least two/all) of the population means are equal. What was the null hypothesis in Excerpt 11.6? Explain it in words first, then in symbols. A one-way ANOVA's alternative hypothesis says that ____ (at least 2/all) of the population means are different. Presentation of Results In ANOVA summary tables, what do the abbreviations "SS" and "MS" stand for? If an ANOVA summary table is set up for Excerpt 11.2, the "between group" df will equal __. If the df for "total" is equal to 29, how many research participants are involved in the analysis? What term other than "Error" is often used to label the middle row of a one-way ANOVA summary table? If the df for Error = 12 while the SS for Error = 30, the MS for Error would be equal to __. What letter is used to denote the calculated and critical values in an analysis of variance? (T/F) Based on the information in Excerpt 11.7, it is possible that the 3 samples were the same size. How many null hypotheses were tested in Excerpt 11.7? If each of the F-tests in a set of ANOVAs is not significant before the Bonferroni adjustment is applied, could any of those F-tests ends up being significant after the Bonferroni adjustment is applied? Assumptions of a One-Way ANOVA The 4 underlying assumptions of a one-way ANOVA are: randomness, independence, normality, and _______. Using sumbols, show what the null hypothesis is when Levene's or Hartley's test is applied to sample data. When testing an assumption, the researcher usually hopes to ____ (reject/fail to reject) the assumption's Ho. (T/F) The one-way ANOVA F-test is robust to violations of the equal-variance assumption if the ns are equal. If the normality or equal-variance assumption is untenable, the researcher has 3 options. What are they? Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance Most researchers _____ (do/don't) attempt to see if their results have practical significance once their ANOVA demonstrates that they are the "owners" of statistical significance. What will a power analysis "tell" a researcher if the power analysis is done before any data are collected? Tips for Deciphering/Critiquing Research Results Based on One-Way ANOVAs In a one-way ANOVA: the statistical focus is on __, each subject supplies __ score(s), and dftotal + __ = the total number of research participants. (T/F) If the F is significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all different. (T/F) If the F is not significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all the same. Questions that are Supposed to be More Difficult If a one-way ANOVA compares 3 groups (with each n=10), and if SSerror = 54 while SStotal = 74, what will F be? If you convert each SD in Excerpt 11.1 into a variance and then compute the mean of those variances, the result will be the same (within rounding error) as which of the numbers in the ANOVA summary table contained in Excerpt 11.5? What's the maximum number of numbers that can appear in a one-way ANOVA summary table? In Excerpt 11.6, what would the F-ratio's dfs have been if there had been 20 (rather than 10) people in of the comparison groups? If the researchers in Excerpt 11.17 had set their desired power equal to .90 (rather than .80), the needed sample size would have _______ (larger/smaller) than 35 per group. In Excerpt 11.9, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's calculated value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied? Options: a) It got larger; b) It got smaller; (c) It was unaffected by Bonferroni In Excerpt 11.13, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's critical value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied? Options: a) It got larger; b) It got smaller; (c) It was unaffected by Bonferroni (T/F) These two symbolic statements say the same thing: (1) Ha: sm2 0; (2) Ha: sm2 > 0 Click here for answers.