ANCOVA's Underlying Assumptions

As indicated earlier, the "standard" assumptions of ANOVA (e.g., normality, homogeneity of variance, sphericity) underlie ANCOVA as well. You should upgrade or downgrade your evaluation of a study depending upon the attention given to these assumptions in the situations where F-tests are biased when assumptions are violated. Unfortunately, you are likely to come across many ANCOVA studies in which there is absolutely no discussion of linearity, equal regression slopes, or homogeneity of variance.

(From Chapter 15, p. 396)

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Schuyler W. Huck
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