Inferences Concerning One or Two Means

  1. Introduction
    1. A needed shift in inferential focus: from correlations to means
    2. Reasons why multiple chapters are needed to consider inferences on means
  2. Inferences Concerning a Single Mean
    1. The inferential purpose
    2. Interval Estimation
    3. Tests concerning a null hypothesis
      1. The null hypothesis
      2. The two most popular test procedures: t-tests and z-tests
      3. Degrees of freedom (df )
  3. Inferences Concerning Two Means
    1. Independent vs. correlated samples
      1. The basic distinction
      2. Three settings that produce correlated samples
      3. The sample sizes, if different, provide a signal as to the kind of samples
      4. Terminology
    2. The inferential purpose
    3. Setting up and testing a null hypothesis
      1. The general and typical forms of the tested Ho
      2. Three settings that produce correlated samples
      3. The three most popular test procedures: t, z, and F
    4. Interval estimation with two means
  4. Multiple Dependent Variables
    1. Results presented within passages of text or in tables
    2. The Bonferroni and pseudo-Bonferroni adjustment techniques
  5. Effect Size Assessment and Power Analyses
    1. Do impressive p-levels signify important findings?
    2. Options for checking to see if a statistically significant result has practical significance too
      1. A computed effect size
      2. Omega squared & eta squared
      3. A post hoc power analysis
    3. Performing a power analysis before data are collected
  6. Underlying Assumptions
    1. The four main assumptions . . . and the two discussed most by applied researchers
    2. Testing the assumptions (and options if an assumption seems untenable)
    3. Equal sample sizes and the notion of "robustness"
    1. A nonsignificant result doesnšt mean that the null hypothesis is true
    2. Overlapping distributions
    3. The typical use of t-tests
    4. Practical significance versus statistical significance
    5. Type I and Type II errors


Copyright © 2012

Schuyler W. Huck
All rights reserved.

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