  Quiz Over the 2nd Half of Chapter 13 (pp. 324-345)

Two-Way Analyses of Variance

(NOTE: This quiz covers pages 324-345 of the book. A different quiz covers pages 306-324.)

Follow-Up Tests
1. If none of the two-way ANOVA's Fs turns out to be significant, no follow-up tests will be conducted.
2.  True False
3. Follow-up tests can be used to "probe" significant main effects ___ significant interactions.
4.  and but not
Follow-Up Tests to Probe Significant Main Effects
1. In Excerpt 13.15, if there had been just 2 conditions, no follow-up test would have been conducted.
2.  True False
3. Consider the post hoc results shown Excerpt 13.15. If these results had been presented in a table with letters attached to the means, how many different letters would there have been?
4.  None 1 (an "a") 2 (an "a" and a "b") 3 (an "a," a "b," and a "c")
5. If post hoc tests are used to probe the significant main effects of a 2x3 ANOVA, how many null hypotheses will be tested in the post hoc investigation?
6.  2 3 5 6
Follow-Up Tests to Probe a Significant Interaction
1. Researchers usually refrain from interpreting the main effect F-ratios if the interaction is significant.
2.  True False
3. In the middle portion of Figure 13.1, which Source(s) would be "ns" if the cell mean of 5 is changed to 35?
4.  The main effect for A The main effect for B The main effects for A and B The AxB interaction The AxB interaction and one of the main effects
5. In a graph of a cell means, the ordinate is usually labeled with the name of
6.  the dependent variable. either of the 2 factors. the levels of one of the 2 factors. the interaction. the sources (from the summary table) that turned out significant.
7. If a statistically significant interaction is graphed, the lines in the graph ___ be parallel.
8.  will won't
9. Comparing cell means that lie in individual rows and/or individual columns is a test of
10.  a main effect. simple main effects. the interaction. simple interactions.
11. In Excerpt 13.16, the interaction would vanish if the mean of 5.69 had been equal to
12.  4.50 4.56 5.18 5.24 It is impossible to determine
13. Look at Excerpt 13.17. There would have been ______ of an interaction if the bar for the Low-Load, Milkshake-Salient group had been shorter.
14.  more less
15. If Excerpt 13.19's interaction is graphed, how many lines would there be in the graph.
16.  1 2 4 6
17. If the follow-up strategy used Excerpt 13.20 had been used in Excerpt 13.18, a total of __ pairwise comparisons would have been made.
18.  3 4 8 15 28
Planned Comparisons
1. In two-way ANOVAs, planned comparisons ___ be done if the interaction is not significant.
2.  can can't
3. In Excerpt 13.21, how many means were involved in each of the planned comparisons that was conducted?
4.  2 3 4 It is impossible to determine
Assumptions Associated With a Two-Way ANOVA
1. The assumptions of a two-way ANOVA are the same as those associated with a one-way ANOVA.
2.  True False
3. Violations of the equal variance assumptions of a two-way ANOVA are more disruptive when the __'s differ.
4.  main effect means cell means sample sizes number of levels in the 2 factors
5. In testing the normality and equal variance assumptions, researchers hope for nonsignificant results.
6.  True False
7. Hartley's F-max test focuses on the ________ assumption.
8.  normality equal variance
9. If the normality or equal variance assumption seems untenable, the researcher can either turn to a different test having fewer assumptions or ____.
10.  change the null hypotheses change the alternative hypotheses transform the data divide the data-based p-level by 2 change the level of significance from .05 to .10
11. The term "____" means that a statistical tests functions as it should even if the assumptions are violated.
12.  untainted robust nonparametric powerful reliable
13. An F-test is considered to be turns out larger than it should, it is said to be
14.  positively biased. negatively biased.
Effect Size Indices, Strength of Association Measures, and Power Analyses
1. Two-way ANOVAs ___ yield results that have statistical but no practical significance.
2.  can can't
3. In Excerpt 13.27, the size of d would have been _____ than .44 if the mean rating from elementary teachers had been 8.69 rather than 9.69.
4.  larger smaller
5. It's better to do a power analysis ____ the data are collected and analyzed.
6.  before after
7. A strength-of-effect index can be computed for each main effect F and for the interaction F.
8.  True False
9. The two most commonly used strength-of-effect measures are called _____ and _____.
10.  alpha squared; beta squared delta squared; gamma squared eta squared; omega squared iota squared; epsilon squared
11. Most researchers ___ distinguish between statistical and practical significance in 2-way ANOVAs.
12.  do don't
The Inflated Type I Error Rate in Factorial ANOVAs
1. Since a 2-way ANOVA with 1 dependent variable yields 3 F-tests, most researchers divide a by 3.
2.  True False
3. If a researcher sets a equal to .05 when evaluating each of the 3 F-tests, the "______" error rate is equal to .05.
4.  pairwise nonpairwise familywise testwise
5. In Excerpt 13.29, the Bonferroni-adjusted alpha level would have been equal to 0.01 if there had been 5 school levels (rather than 3).
6.  True False
A Few Warnings Concerning Two-Way ANOVAs
1. If the research questions are not worth investigating, there's a fatal flaw in the study than cannot be salvaged by a two-way ANOVA . . . even if all assumptions are met and all analyses are properly executed.
2.  True False
3. In Excerpt 13.20, the researchers report that "This interaction can be explained by the post hoc analyses that revealed that women in the age category 50 to 59 years had significantly lower scores than did men or women in all other age categories." What two words should be inserted after the word "years"?
4.  on average without exception
5. Because a two-way ANOVA is so powerful, its F-tests never lead to either Type I or Type II errors.
6.  True False
7. If the main effect means for one of the factors in a two-way ANOVA turn out to be identical, the null hypothesis associated with that particular factor should be considered to be true (i.e., fully accepted).
8.  True False

NOTE: Questions dealing with the 1st half of Chapter 14 appear in a separate online interactive quiz.