Quiz (Chapter 18)
Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric
Tests)
Introduction
 The simplest kind of quantitative data involve _____.
 Test procedures such as the median test and the MannWhitney U test
are called ______ tests.
Obtaining Ranked Data
 In how many different ways can a researcher "produce" data that take
the form of ranks?
 In Excerpt 18.6, the 1to10 numerical ranks assigned to each participant's
sorted pictures indicated a _______ ordering of the pictures.
 least preferred to most preferred
 most preferred to least preferred
Reason for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks
 Test procedures designed for use with ranks involve ____ (fewer/more)
assumptions than procedures designed for use with interval or ratiolevel
data.
 Unequal or small sample sizes prompt many researchers to ____ (use/not
use) tests based on ranks.
 (T/F) The total scores people earn on a Likerttype attitude inventory
are probably only ordinal in nature.
The Median Test
 The median test is used to compare 2 or more groups that are _____
(independent/correlated).
 In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians would
appear in the test's null hypothesis?
 In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians need to
be computed from the sample data?
 The calculated value in a median test is referred to as ___.
 t
 F
 c2
 (T/F) Excerpt 18.14 shows that a median test's pvalue gets smaller
as the calculated value gets larger.
The MannWhitney U Test
 The MannWhitney U test test is used to compare 2 groups that are
_____ (independent/correlated).
 Of the two test procedures referred to in Excerpts 18.1 and 18.2,
which one is more powerful?
 The task of interpreting a significant result from a MannWhitney
U test is _____ (easy/difficult).
 (T/F) If the U test leads to a rejection of Ho,
the populations might differ in their means, medians, or modes.
 Excerpt 18.15 shows that there is a ______ (direct/indirect) relationship
between the size of U, the calculated value, and the size of p.
The KruskalWallis H Test
 The KruskalWallis H test is used to compare 3 or more groups that
are _____ (independent/correlated).
 (T/F) In both the KruskalWallis and MannWhitney tests, a "sum of
ranks" is computed for each sample.
 (T/F) In Excerpt 18.18, the number immediately to the right of each H in the final sentence
would have been a ___ (rather than a 2) if there had been 5 music conditions in the study.
 In a KruskalWallis test, Ho is rejected if the calculated
H is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
 In Excerpt 18.20, how many MannWhitney U tests were
conducted?
The Wilcoxon MatchedPairs SignedRanks Test
 Wilcoxon's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores
that are _____ (independent/correlated).
 The calculated value in a Wilcoxon matchedpairs signedranks test
is referred to by what capital letter?
 In Excerpt 18.21, the 1st sentence indicates that data from the control group
were gathered at 3 points in time: pretest1, pretest2, and posttest. The
2nd of these points of data collection is referred to as ____ later in the excerpt.
 pretest1
 pretest2
 posttest1
 posttest2
 In a Wilcoxon test, Ho is rejected if the calculated value
is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
 A significant T suggests that the 2 populations differ in what way,
assuming they have the same shape?
Friedman's TwoWay Analysis of Variance of Ranks
 Friedman's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores
that are _____ (independent/correlated).
 Which parametric ANOVA is analogous to the Friedman twoway analysis
of variance of ranks?
 If each of 3 people tastes 3 soft drinks and then ranks them, what
should you expect the "sum of ranks" to be for any of the beverages
if the null hypothesis (that the 3 beverages are equally good) is true?
 In Excerpt 18.22, which number in the excerpt is the Friedman test's
calculated value?
 .05
 9
 10
 48.47
 If the Friedman test yields a significant result, what test is likely
to be used in a post hoc investigation?
LargeSample Versions of the Tests on Ranks; Ties
 (T/F) A test on ranks made via a ztest (due to large samples) can
be thought of as a "normal curve test."
 The _____ test can be thought of as the "smallsample" version of
the median test.
 (T/F) Excerpt 18.24 shows that the largesample approximation to a KruskalWallis
test has a calculated value represented by z.
 The regular median test is inherently a ______ (smallsample/largesample)
test.
 (T/F) When ties occur in tests on ranks, the only thing a researcher
can do is discard the tied scores.
The Relative Power of Nonparametric Tests
 (T/F) Under certain circumstance, nonparametric tests have more power
than their parametric counterparts.
 Applied researchers should explain why they used the specific tests
selected to analyze their data, and the issue of _____ _____ ought to
be included in such explanations.
A Few Final Comments
 Nonparametric tests ___ (are/are not) based on the assumption that
the data come from random samples.
 The last sentence in the 2nd paragraph on p. 496 urges you not to
use _____ as the criterion for judging the worth of empirical studies.
Click here for answers.
